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university type - Poland  
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Poznań, Poland

Accounting and taxation

Rachunkowość i podatki

Language: Polish Studies in Polish
Subject area: economy and administration
University website: ue.poznan.pl/en
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Accounting
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
Taxation
Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.
Benjamin Franklin, Letter to M. Leroy (Nov. 13, 1789). Complete Works, vol. 10, ed. John Bigelow (1887-1888).
Accounting
Accounting for the most part, remains a legalistic and traditional practice, almost immune to self-criticism by scientific methods.
Kenneth Boulding (1958, p. 95) as cited in: Edward Stamp, Michael J. Mumford, Ken V. Peasnell (1993) Philosophical Perspectives on Accounting. p. 147.
Taxation
The Inland Revenue is not slow, and quite rightly, to take every advantage which is open to it under the Taxing Statutes for the purposes of depleting the taxpayer’s pocket. And the taxpayer is in like manner entitled to be astute to prevent, so far as he honestly can, the depletion of his means by the Inland Revenue.
James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde (1863-1944), Ayrshire Pullman Motor Services and Ritchie v. Inland Revenue (1929) 14 Tax Case 754.
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