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Chorzów, Poland

Accounting and taxation

Rachunkowość i Podatki

Language: Polish Studies in Polish
Subject area: economy and administration
University website: www.wsb.pl/english/
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Accounting
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
Accounting
The swift victory of the railway over the waterway resulted from organizational as well as technological innovation. Technology made possible fast, all-weather transportation; but safe, regular, reliable movement of goods and passengers, as well as the continuing maintenance and repair of locomotives, rolling stock, and track, roadbed, stations, roundhouses and other equipment, required the creation of a sizable administrative organization. It meant the employment of an administrative command of middle and top executives to monitor, evaluate, and coordinate the work of managers responsible for the day-to-day operations. It meant, too, the formulation of brand new types of internal administrative procedures and accounting and statistical controls. Hence, the operational requirements of the railroads demanded the creation of the first administrative hierarchies in American business.
Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. The Visible Hand (1977) p. 87.
Accounting
The problem is not that this optimistic view is wrong. By economic accounting, the optimistic view is mostly right.
Didier Sornette Why Stock Markets Crash - Critical Events in Complex Systems (2003) Ch. 10, 2050: The End Of The Growth Era?, p. 390.
Accounting
The accounts of money, supplies and provisions should then be considered. The overseer should report what wine and oil has been sold, what price he got, what is on hand, and what remains for sale. Security should be taken for such accounts as ought to be secured. All other unsettled matters should be agreed upon. If any thing is needed for the coming year, it should be bought; every thing which is not needed should be sold. Whatever there is for lease should be leased.
Cato the Elder. De Agri Cultura, about 160 BC. Of the duties of the owner.
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